 # Finding a Good Deal explainer

The aim of this puzzle: Use the `.forEach()` method to find the mininum value of the `flightPrices` array.

Walkthrough of the solution: The `max` and `min` variables start out storing the 1st number in the array. These need to be updated to the largest and smallest values in the array. This can be done using the `compareToMaximum` and `compareToMinimum` functions. The `compareToMaximum` function takes a value and checks if it’s larger than the current `max` value. If it is, then `max` gets updated to that new value, otherwise it stays the same. `compareToMinimum` does a similar thing but checking if the value is smaller than the current `min`. All that needs to happen is run all the values of the array through the 2 functions.

Instead of a For Loop, the `.forEach()` method can be used. When `.forEach()` is applied to an array, each element of the array is passed into the callback function given to `.forEach()`. If you use `flightPrices.forEach(compareToMinimum)`, then each of the elements of the `flightPrices` array will be used as the input for `compareToMinimum()`. That `compareToMinimum()` function will update the value of the `min` variable.

Sample code solution:
(Tap below to reveal)

``````import { flightPrices } from 'grasshopper.travel';

let max = flightPrices;
let min = flightPrices;

function compareToMaximum(value) {
max = value > max ? value : max;
}

function compareToMinimum(value) {
min = value < min ? value : min;
}

console.log(flightPrices);

flightPrices.forEach(compareToMaximum);
console.log('Maximum: ' + max);

flightPrices.forEach(compareToMinimum);
console.log('Minimum: ' + min);
``````

JavaScript Concepts: Callback Functions, Calling Functions, Code Block (function), `console.log()`, Conditionals (ternary statement), `.forEach()`, `import`
Additional Code (hidden code that runs before the puzzle’s code):

``````let flightPrices= [...Array(6)].map(i => pickRandom(275)+125);
flightPrices.splice(pickRandom(6),0,Math.min(...flightPrices)-pickRandom(25));
``````

This app makes me something like
‘I understand Spanish but cannot speak’

1 Like

`.forEach()` is similar to a `for...of` loop.

``````flightPrices.forEach(compareToMaximum);
``````

is the same as

``````for (let element of flightPrices) {
compareToMaximum(element);
}
``````

If you just want to run each value in an array through a function, `.forEach()` is a way you can do it with a little less code.

–Frankie

The part I don’t understand is how the test exactly works for the comparisons. I get the premise but not how the code plays out, specifically the equals after the max or min at the beginning of the operation, that only “value” follows “?” as the Then outcome for a true “If” test, and then how “min” by itself as the false test outcome means anything. Does anything. I get THAT it keeps the value of min as min going forward instead of changing to the value just compared with it. I just don’t get how so or why the coding language is so minimal there. Probably for efficiency but I’m trying to retain this and I’m finding it a bit more difficult because of that.

Thank you. I hope that all makes sense. Please ask for clarification if not.

Hey there, great question!

Ternaries are popular because they can do in 1 line of code what an if…else statement can do in 5 or 6, which is a useful shortcut that can make the work of writing code a bit faster. The tradeoff is that ternaries can sometimes be a bit miserable to read.

Let’s take a look at one of the ternaries in this puzzle:

``````function compareToMaximum(value) {
max = value > max ? value : max;
}
``````

Let’s say that `max` is `5`, and we call the function with `6` as an argument, like this:
`compareToMaximum(6)`

The ternary inside the function will check:

``````max = (is 6 > 5) ? 6 : 5;
``````

Think of the `max =` at the beginning of the line as reaching a long arm over the test. If the test is true, the `max =` will grab the value after the `?`. If the test is false, it will grab the value after the `:`

Hope this makes sense! Let me know if you have any further questions.

Ben

It does make sense. That answer will do for my current needed level of understanding.

Thanks 2 Likes

what is the difference between .foreach () and .filter (), both of them seem to have the same way of working, looping to the aray and using the callback function

Good question.

`.filter()’ is a way to apply a test to every element in an array and return the elements that pass into a new array.

For example, taking an array of mixed numbers and filtering the even numbers into their own array:

``````let numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9];
let evenNumbers = numbers.filter(num => num % 2 === 0);
// the % operator finds the remainder after division of one number by another
``````

The `.forEach()` method runs a callback function with each element as an argument, but doesn’t return anything, so you wouldn’t use it to define a new variable like you would with `.filter()`.

For example, you can use it to print every element in an array like this:

``````['alpha', 'beta', 'charlie'].forEach(word => console.log(word));
``````

Hope that helps! Let me know if you have any more questions.
Ben

I am little confused with this line,

let max = flightprices;
let min = flightprices;

is it declaring max/min = 0; or picking 0th element from flightprices array. Need help.

Hey there, both of the variables are initially set to the first element (at index `0`) of the `flightPrices` array.

Later in the code, we use the `compareToMinimum` and `compareToMaximum` functions with `.forEach` to figure out what the actual `min` and `max` values are, but to start, we just set their values to the first element.

Hope this clarifies things! Let me know if you have any further questions.
Ben

1 Like